A Night to Remember: The RMS Titanic

National History Standards

 Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 6: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900)

STANDARD 1: How the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed the American people.

Standard 1A: The student understands the connections among industrialization, the advent of the modern corporation, and material well-being. 

5-12: Explain how organized industrial research produced technological breakthroughs, especially the Bessemer steel process, conversion to electrical power, and telephonic communication, and how these innovations transformed the economy, work processes, and domestic life.  [Utilize quantitative data] 
5-12: Evaluate the careers of prominent industrial and financial leaders. [Assess the importance of the individual in history]

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, TITANIC, to be launched
    DATE CREATED: 1911 May 31.
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  2. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, BIG RUSH TO EUROPE COMING.; Spring and Summer Tourists Already Booking Accommodations
    DATE CREATED: February 12, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  3. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, FINAL TESTS FOR TITANTIC.; Trial Trips Set for This Week and Maiden Voyage in April.
    DATE CREATED: March 25, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  4. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, TITANIC TESTS HER SPEED.; Then She Sails for Southampton to Prepare for Maiden Voyage.
    DATE CREATED: April 3, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  5. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, THE TITANIC SAILS TO-DAY.; Largest Vessel In World to Bring Many Well-Known Persons Here.
    DATE CREATED: April 10, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  6. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, TITANIC IN PERIL ON LEAVING PORT; Suction of Giant Liner Breaks Hawsers of the New York, Which Floats Helpless.
    DATE CREATED: April 11, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  7. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, The Titanic
    DATE CREATED: 1912 April 15
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  8. DESCRIPTION: Daily Memorandum from the Hydrographic Office Reporting Titanic Disaster
    DATE CREATED: 04/15/1912
    SOURCE: Record Group 21: Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 - 1991
    REPOSITORY: NARA's Northeast Region (New York City) (NRANA), 201 Varick Street, New York, NY

  9. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, Allan Liner Virginian Now Speeding Toward the Big Ship.; BALTIC TO THE RESCUE, TOO
    DATE CREATED: April 15, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  10. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, LATEST NEWS FROM THE SINKING SHIP
    DATE CREATED: April 15, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  11. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, NEW LINER TITANIC HITS AN ICEBERG; SINKING BY THE BOW AT MIDNIGHT; WOMEN PUT OFF IN LIFE BOATS; LAST WIRELESS AT 12:27 A.M. BLURRED
    DATE CREATED: April 15, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  12. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, TITANIC life boats on way to CARPATHIA
    DATE CREATED: [no date recorded on caption card]
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  13. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Lifeboat Carrying Titanic Survivors
    DATE CREATED: 05/14/1912
    NOTES from National Archives: This is a photograph of a lifeboat carrying Titanic shipwreck survivors. Original caption: "Boat No 6, 16, 11 women, 6 men, Miss Bowerman, Mrs. J. J. Brown, Mrs. Candee, Mrs. Cavendish, Mrs. Cavendish (Maid), Mrs. Meyer, Miss Norton, Mrs. Rothchild, Mrs. L. P. Smith, Mrs. Stine & Maid, Hitching Q. M."
    SOURCE: Record Group 21: Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 - 1991
    REPOSITORY: NARA's Northeast Region (New York City) (NRANA), 201 Varick Street, New York, NY

  14. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, A $5,000,000 RISK CARRIED BY LLOYD'S; Policy Was Written Merely to Cover Hull of the Sunken Titanic
    DATE CREATED:  April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  15. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, Biggest Liner Plunges to the Bottom at 2:20 A. M.; RESCUERS THERE TOO LATE
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  16. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, BOSTONIANS ON BOARD.; Many Prominent People Returning from Mediterranean Sojourns.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  17. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, BULKHEADS AT FAULT, SAYS NAVAL EXPERT; If Titanic Stayed Up Five Hours It Should Have Been Possible to Save Her.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  18. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, Col. Astor and Bride, Isidor Straus and Wife, and Maj. Butt Aboard.; RULE OF SEA" FOLLOWED
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  19. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, Capt. E.J. Smith, into whose hands the passengers on the Titanic entrusted themselves on the voyage which will never be forgotten in the list of great sea disasters, has followed the sea from his boyhood. For forty years it was his proud boast that he had had an uneventful life.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCE: New York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  20. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, GREAT ANXIETY IN PARIS.; Americans Besieged the Steamship Offices, Wild for News.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  21. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, LONDON WENT TO BED THINKING ALL SAVED; Only the Latest Morning Newspapers Contained an Inkling of Real Disaster.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  22. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, NOTED MEN ON THE LOST TITANIC; Col. Jacob Astor, with His Wife; Isidor Straus and Wife, and Benj. Guggenheim Aboard.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  23. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, PARTIAL LIST OF THE SAVED.; Includes Bruce Ismay, Mrs. Widener, Mrs. H.B. Harris, and an Incomplete name, suggesting Mrs. Astor's.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  24. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, PRESIDENT TAFT STUNNED.; Wires White Star Line for News of Major Butt.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  25. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, SUNKEN LINER WAS $7,500,000 PALACE; Titanic, Really a Fifteen-Story Floating Hotel, Represented the Height of Luxury.
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  26. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, THE APPALLING DISASTER
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  27. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, TITANIC CARRIED 1,320 PASSENGERS; Had 325 in Her First, 285 in the Second, and 710 in Her Third Cabin
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  28. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, WOMEN SOB AS NEWS BULLETINS APPEAR; Thousands Stand in Times Square Till Midnight to Learn Details of Disaster
    DATE CREATED: April 16, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  29. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, BOATS FAR TOO FEW, SAYS SHIP'S DESIGNER; Titanic Carried More Than Required, Declares Carlisle, but Needed Fifty
    DATE CREATED: April 17, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  30. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, Carpathia Not Expected Until Thursday Night with Survivors.; NOT IN WIRELESS TOUCH
    DATE CREATED: April 17, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  31. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, COMPLETE LIST OF THOSE ON TITANIC; White Star Agents Cable Revised Roster of Passengers on the Sunken Liner
    DATE CREATED: April 17, 1912
    SOURCE: New York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  32. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Stuart Collett - one of the [Titanic] survivers [sic] arriving on the CARPATHIA
    DATE CREATED: 1912 April 13 [?]
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  33. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, [Group of survivors of the Titanic disaster aboard the Carpathia after being rescued]
    DATE CREATED: c. 1912
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress, Washington, DC

  34. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, [Titanic survivors, Ida Sophia Fischer Hippach and daughter, Jean Gertrude Hippach standing in building entryway].
    DATE CREATED: 1912
    SUMMARY from American Memory: Group portrait of Mrs. Ida Sophia Fischer Hippach (Mrs. Louis A. Hippach) and daughter, Jean Gertrude Hippach, standing in the entryway of a building in Chicago, Illinois. They were survivors of the sinking of the Titanic. Text on the negative reads: Miss Jean Isabella Hippach
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to Obtain Photographic Reproductions
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCEPhotographs from the Chicago Daily News, 1902-1933
    REPOSITORY
    : Chicago Historical Society, Clark Street at North Avenue, Chicago, IL

  35. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, [Survivors of the Titanic disaster]
    DATE CREATED: c1912
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress, Washington, DC

  36. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Survivors of TITANIC - family group
    DATE CREATED: [1912]
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  37. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Survivors of TITANIC on CARPATHIA
    DATE CREATED: [no date recorded on caption card]
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  38. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, INQUIRY BY CONGRESS INTO TITANIC'S LOSS; Mott of New York Introduces Resolution Covering Lifeboats and Wireless
    DATE CREATED: April 17, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  39. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, LIFEBOATS FOR ALL NOT ORDERED BY LAW; Apparent Security of Modern Liners Kept Out-of-Date Requirements in Force.
    DATE CREATED: April 17, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  40. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, President Taft Early Wired for News of Major Butt.; VINCENT ASTOR'S GRIEF
    DATE CREATED: April 17, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  41. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, TIDINGS OF TRAGEDY OVERWHELM LONDON; From Daylight Till Midnight Anxious Throngs Beseiged Steamship Offices.
    DATE CREATED: April 17, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  42. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Getting news of TITANIC - White Star Office
    DATE CREATED: [no date recorded on caption card]
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  43. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, CARPATHIA HERE TO-NIGHT WITH TITANIC'S SURVIVORS; HER REPORTS SHOW 700 SAVED; 1,500 GONE TO DEATH; WIRELESS MERELY OUTLINES THE TRAGIC STORY
    DATE CREATED: April 18, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  44. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, Rescue Ship Now Nearing Port.; CITY'S ARMS FLUNG OUT TO SURVIVORS
    DATE CREATED: April 18, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  45. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, Col. Astor Went Down Waving Farewells to His Bride.; SOME STORIES OF PANIC
    DATE CREATED: April 19, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  46. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, LINER DID NOT SPEED, MR. ISMAY DECLARES; Not the Custom of the White Star Line to Try to Break Records
    DATE CREATED: April 19, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  47. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, Rescue Ship Arrives -Thousands Gather At the Pier.; FOUR BODIES BROUGHT IN
    DATE CREATED: April 19. 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  48. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Crowd awaiting survivors from the Titanic
    DATE CREATED: 1912 April 18
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  49. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, WOMEN AT THE OARS OF THE LIFEBOATS; Some of the Men Had Become Exhausted and They Took Their Places.
    DATE CREATED: April 19. 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  50. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, MANY NEEDLESSLY DIED ON TITANIC; LIFEBOATS LAUNCHED ONLY HALF-FILLED; Senate Committee Gets Fact from Lost Ship's Second Officer.
    DATE CREATED: April 20, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  51. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, RAYNER PUTS BLAME UPON BRUCE ISMAY; Calls Him a Coward for Deserting Vessel When 1,500 Were Left to Face Death.
    DATE CREATED: April 20, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  52. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, SURVIVORS ADD TO DISASTER TALES; Lifeboats, Filled Rapidly, Were Unprovisioned, and Had No Water or Lights.
    DATE CREATED: April 20, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  53. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, TITANIC'S DESIGNER FAINTS AT SERVICE; Amid Memorial Exercises in St. Paul's, London, Mr. Carlysle Falls Insensible.
    DATE CREATED: April 20, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  54. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, WOMEN REVEALED AS HEROINES BY WRECK; Mrs. J.J. Brown of Denver Tells Story of Her Seven Hours in Lifeboat.
    DATE CREATED: April 20, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  55. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, [Mrs. James J. "Molly" Brown, survivor of the Titanic, three-quarter length portrait, standing, facing right, right arm on back of chair]
    DATE CREATED: [between 1890 and 1920]
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  56. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, ARE GOING AT ME,' ISMAY COMPLAINS; But Englishmen, Roused to Anger, Agree White Star Chairman Is on Trial.
    DATE CREATED: April 21, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  57. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, ENGLAND PROUD OF THE BAND.; Think Stead Chose "Nearer, My God, to Thee," as the Last Hymn.
    DATE CREATED: April 21, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  58. DESCRIPTION: Sheet music, The band played Nearer my God to thee as the ship went down
    DATE CREATED: New York, New York, Joe Morris, 1912
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCEHistoric American Sheet Music, 1850-1920 (from Duke University)
    REPOSITORY
    : Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University

  59. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, SINKING SHIP'S BAND CHOSE FITTING HYMN; " Hold Me Up in Mighty Waters," a Suggestive Line in "Autumn."
    DATE CREATED: April 21, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  60. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper, ISMAY REPLIES, DENYING ALL; Not in Control of Ship, and Did Not 0rder Full Speed Through Ice Fields.
    DATE CREATED: April 22, 1912
    SOURCENew York Times. Available online through Historical New York Times (subscription required).

  61. DESCRIPTION[Photocopy of hand-written account by Captain of R.M.S. CARPATHIA describing his response to the distress signal of the TITANIC on 15 April 1912]
    DATE CREATED: [ca. 1912]
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    REPOSITORY
    : Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  62. For reports of the US Senate and British Board of Trade inquiries, see the Titanic Inquiry Project.

Additional Media Resources

On Board the Titanic -- From Discovery.com

Titanic's Lost Sister -- From NOVA

Posted Aboard R.M.S. Titanic -- From the National Postal Museum

RMS Titanic

The Father Browne Photographic Collection 

Witness to History: Sinking of the Titanic -- From the Enoch Pratt Free Library

Images of the Titanic From Maryland Newspapers -- From the Maryland State Archives

The Titanic in Documents and Photographs -- From the National Archives

Additional Instructional Resources

Titanic and Beyond

Titanic Kids:  Fun Facts and Classroom Activities

Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition

Titanic:  Essential Questions 

Titanic Science -- From the Maryland Science Center

Secondary Resources

Archbold, Rick and Dana McCauley. Last Dinner On the Titanic Menus and Recipes From the Great Liner. Hyperion, 1997.

Green, Rod. Building the Titanic: An Epic Tale of the Creation of History's Most Famous Ocean Liner. Readers Digest, 2005.

Kuhn, Arthur K. "International Aspects of the Titanic Case" The American Journal of International Law (Apr., 1915): 336-351.

Kuntz, Tom, ed. The Titanic Disaster Hearings. Pocket, 1998.

Lord, Walter and Nathaniel Philbrick. A Night to Remember. Bantam, reissued 1997.

Mowbray, Jay Henry. Sinking of the Titanic: Eyewitness Accounts. Dover Publications, 1998.

Winocour, Jack. The Story of the Titanic as Told by Its Survivors. Dover Publications, 1960.

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Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.

 

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