Liberty Enlightening the World

Introduction

Statue of LibertyBe it known that I, AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI, of Paris, in the Republic of France, having originated and produced a Design of a Monumental Statue, representing "Liberty enlightening the world," being intended as a commemorative monument of the independence of the United States....

The statue is that of a female figure standing erect upon a pedestal or block, the body being thrown slightly over to the left, so as to gravitate upon the left leg, the whole figure being thus in equalibrium, and symmetrically arranged with respect to a perpendicular line or axis passing through the head and left foot. The right leg, with its lower limb thrown back, is bent, resting upon the bent toe, thus giving grace to the general attitude of the figure. The body is dressed in the classical drapery, being a stola, or mantle gathered in upon the left shoulder and thrown over the skirt or tunic or under-garment, which drops in voluminous folds upon the feet. The right arm is thrown up and stretched out, with a flamboyant torch grasped in the hand. The flame of the torch is thus held high upon above the figure. The arm is nude; the drapery of the sleeve is dropping down upon the shoulder in voluminous folds. In the left arm, which is falling against the body, is held a tablet, upon which is inscribed "4th July 1776...."

Excerpt from: Patent application #11,023, dated February 18, 1879
A. Bartholdi

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades K-4:

Topic 3: The History of the United States: Democratic Principles and Values and the Peoples from Many Cultures Who Contributed to Its Cultural, Economic and Political Heritage 

Standard 4: How Democratic Values Came to Be, and How They Have Been Exemplified by People, Events, and Symbols 

Standard 4E: The student understands national symbols through which American values and principles are expressed.

 K-4: Explain why important buildings, statues, and monuments are associated with state and national history, such as the White House, Lincoln Memorial, Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, Angel Island, Mt. Rushmore, and veterans memorials. [Obtain historical data]

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 6: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900)

STANDARD 2: Massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity. 

Standard 2C: The student understands how new cultural movements at different social levels affected American life.

9-12: Analyze how the rise of public education and voluntary organizations promoted national unity and American values in an era of unprecedented immigration and socioeconomic change. [Examine the influence of ideas] 

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION: "Design for a Statue"
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: February 18, 1879
    NOTES: Patent application by Bartholdi for the Statue of Liberty
    REPOSITORYU.S Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC

  2. DESCRIPTIONStatue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York City, New York County, NY
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED
    COPYRIGHTRights and Reproductions
    SOURCEBuilt in America: Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  3. DESCRIPTION[Workmen constructing the Statue of Liberty in Bartholdi's Parisian warehouse workshop; first model; left hand; and quarter-size head--Winter 1882?]
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: [1882 or 1883]
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C

  4. DESCRIPTION: [Head of Statue of Liberty on display in park in Paris]
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: [1883]
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C  

  5. DESCRIPTIONThe great Bartholdi statue
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: New York : Published by Currier & Ives, c1884 Apr. 15.
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C 

  6. DESCRIPTIONPedestal for Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor [and insert of head and shoulder portrait of Bartholdi]
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Illus. in: Harper's Weekly, v. 29, (1885 June 6), p. 356.
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to obtain copies of this item
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C

  7. DESCRIPTIONNew York - arrival of the French transport steamer Isere with the Bartholdi statue on board, at the base of the pedestal, Bedloe's Island, Friday, June 19th - the salute of welcome by the fleet
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Illus. in: Frank Leslie's illustrated newspaper, vol. 60 (1885 June 27), p. 297.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to obtain copies of this item
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C

  8. DESCRIPTIONNew York - Transferring the cases containing the Bartholdi statue from the hold of the ISERE to lighters, for removal to Bedloe's Island
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Illus. in: Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, 1885 July 4.
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C

  9. DESCRIPTIONStatue of Liberty
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: United States : Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 1898
    SUMMARY FROM American Memory: A three-quarter front view of the Statue of Liberty. The statue was erected twelve years earlier, in 1886.
    PLAYBACK: Information about Video Playback
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Copies of Films
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCEInventing Entertainment: the Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division Washington, D.C. 

  10. DESCRIPTIONBartholde's [Bartholdi's] Statue of Liberty
    PHOTOGRAPHER: William Henry Jackson
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1892
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to Order Photographic Reproductions
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCETouring Turn-of-the-Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1880-1920
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 

  11. DESCRIPTION[Pages 1 and 2 of The Evening Sun, 29 September 1909] (includes Liberty Statue Encircled by Wright in Aeroplane)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: September 29, 1909
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCEThe Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.

  12. DESCRIPTIONA Chinese View of the Statue of Liberty. 
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: In [The American missionary. / Volume 39, Issue 10, Oct 1885]
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCEThe Nineteenth Century in Print: Periodicals
    REPOSITORY: Cornell University

  13. DESCRIPTIONPostponing Bartholdi's Statue Until There is Liberty for Colored as Well [from newspaper]
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHEDCleveland Gazette 04, no. 15 (11/27/1886): 02
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCEThe African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920
    REPOSITORYOhio Historical Center Archives Library

  14. DESCRIPTIONLibertad
    ARTIST: Ester Hernandez
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: c[19]76.
    SUMMARY FROM American Memory: Print shows a woman sculptor carving the Statue of Liberty (labeled Aztlan) into shapes and motifs typical of indigenous Mexican culture, as a demonstration of resistance to assimilation.
    REPRODUCTIONSHow to Obtain Reproductions
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCEAmerican Women: A Gateway to Library of Congress Resources for the Study of Women's History and Culture in the United States
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

See also: 

Additional Instructional Resources

Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island. From National Park Service Teacher's Corner.

The Statue of Liberty: The Meaning and Use of a National Symbol

Sighting the Statue of Liberty

Symbols of America. From DiscoverySchool.com

One Great American Lady: A Heritage Welcome to the USA

Secondary Resources

"The Statue of Liberty." Manufacturer and Builder (September 1876).

"The Statue of Liberty." Manufacturer and Builder (November 1876).

"The Great Statue of Liberty and the Pedestal Fund." Manufacturer and Builder (June 1885).

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Statue of Liberty National Monument
Liberty Island
New York, NY 10004

Copyright and Other Restrictions

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Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.

 

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