The first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before the cabinet.

Emancipation Proclamation

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Phone: (410) 260-6400
Internet: www.mdsa.net
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National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877) 

STANDARD 2: The course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people.

Standard 2A: The student understands how the resources of the Union and Confederacy affected the course of the war. 

5-12: Identify the turning points of the war and evaluate how political, military, and diplomatic leadership affected the outcome of the conflict. [Assess the importance of the individual in history] 
5-12: Evaluate provisions of the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln's reasons for issuing it, and its significance. [Examine the influence of ideas] 

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION: Abraham Lincoln,  (Preliminary Draft of Emancipation Proclamation)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: July 22, 1862
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. Series 1. General Correspondence. 1833-1916.
    REPOSITORY:  Library of Congress, Washington, DC

  2. DESCRIPTION: Letter, Abraham Lincoln to Albert G. Hodges  (Lincoln's position on slavery) 
    ALTERNATE VIEW: President Abraham Lincoln to Albert G. Hodges, editor of the Frankfort, KY, Commonwealth, April 4, 1864. Autograph draft, 3pp. The Robert Todd Lincoln Family Papers, Manuscript Division.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 4, 1864
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. Series 1. General Correspondence. 1833-1916.
    REPOSITORY:  Library of Congress, Washington, DC

  3. DESCRIPTION: Lithograph, Abraham Lincoln,  (Final Emancipation Proclamation--Final Draft)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: January 1, 1863
    NOTES: Original destroyed in the Chicago fire of 1871.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. Series 1. General Correspondence. 1833-1916.
    REPOSITORY:  Library of Congress, Washington, DC

  4. DESCRIPTION:  Print # 3, Writing the Emancipation Proclamation [Etching]
    ARTIST: Adalbert John Volck (1828-1912)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Baltimore, 1863
    SUMMARY FROM AMERICAN MEMORY: Lincoln is seen writing, his foot on the U.S. Constitution. Ghouls and demons surround him on the furniture, the inkpot. Two paintings of saints of war are hung on the wall.
    REPRODUCTIONS Rights and reproductions
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE:  Civil War Treasures from the New-York Historical Society 
    REPOSITORY:  New York Historical Society 

  5. DESCRIPTION: Lithograph, President Lincoln, writing the Proclamation of Freedom. January 1st, 1863
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1863
    SUMMARY FROM AMERICAN MEMORY: A print based on David Gilmour Blythe's fanciful painting of Lincoln writing the Emancipation Proclamation. Contrary to the title, the proclamation was issued in 1862 and went into effect in January 1863. In a cluttered study Lincoln sits in shirtsleeves and slippers, at work on the document near an open window. His left hand is placed on a Bible that rests on a copy of the Constitution in his lap. The scene is crammed with symbolic details and other meaningful references. A bust of Lincoln's strongly Unionist predecessor Andrew Jackson sits on a mantlepiece near the window at Lincoln's right. A bust of another former President, James Buchanan, who was widely viewed as ineffectual against secessionism, hangs by a rope around its neck from a bookcase behind Lincoln. The scales of justice appear in the left corner, and a railsplitter's maul lies on the floor at Lincoln's feet. 
    COPYRIGHTCopyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  African American Odyssey
    REPOSITORY:  Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

  6. DESCRIPTION: Letter, Tennessee Loyal Citizens to Abraham Lincoln, December 4, 1862 (Petition requesting exemption from Emancipation Proclamation)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: December 4, 1862
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. Series 1. General Correspondence. 1833-1916.
    REPOSITORY:  Library of Congress, Washington, DC

  7. DESCRIPTION: The Emancipation of the Negroes, January, 1863 - the past and the future
    ARTIST: Thomas Nast
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: January 24, 1863 in Harper's Weekly
    SOURCE: HarpWeek

  8. DESCRIPTION: Contrabands Under the Proclamation
    ARTIST: Thomas Nast
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: May 9, 1863 in Harper's Weekly
    SOURCE: HarpWeek

  9. DESCRIPTION: Audio: Former slave Charlie Smith discusses work and living situation after the Emancipation Proclamation.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: November 1961
    CONTENT NOTE FROM THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES: This partially edited oral history sound recording is an interview with Charlie Smith, a former slave and cowboy actor, made for a USDA radio program. At the time of the interview, Smith was 119 years of age and purportedly the oldest living person in the United States.

    Smith indicates that he was 12 years old when he was put on a slave ship from Liberia to U.S. He says he was bought at an auction in New Orleans by Charles Smith, a wealthy Texas rancher, who gave him his name (Smith states his real name was Mitchell Watkins). Smith lived and worked as one of the family on the Smith Ranch in Texas near Galveston and Red River. The King Ranch of Texas is on the land that was once the Smith Ranch.

    Smith, 21 years old when the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in 1863, went to Hollywood with Charles Smith's son, John. There he appeared as the cowboy, "The Trigger Kid" in Western films.

    Smith discusses obtaining his Social Security card at the age of 113; marrying three times; and his views on money, lifestyles, religion, work, and his formula for a long life.
    SOURCE: Item from Record Group 16: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture, 1839 - 1981
    REPOSITORY: Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-M), National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001

See also: 

America's Bloodiest Day: The Battle of Antietam

Additional Media Resources

Emancipation Proclamation. Includes timeline and image gallery. From American Memory.

Featured Documents: The Emancipation Proclamation. From the National Archives.

Africans in America. Historical Documents: Emancipation Proclamation. From PBS.org

Additional Instructional Resources 

Before, During, and After the Emancipation Proclamation: A Slave's View

The Emancipation Proclamation through Different Eyes

Attitudes Toward Emancipation

Secondary Resources 

Krug, Mark M. "Lincoln, the Republican Party, and the Emancipation Proclamation" The History Teacher (Nov. 1973): 48-61.

________. "The Republican Party and the Emancipation Proclamation" The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 48, No. 2. (Apr., 1963), pp. 98-114.

McConnell, Roland C. "From Preliminary to Final Emanicipation Proclamation the First Hundred Days" The Journal of Negro History  (Oct. 1963): 260-276.

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Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

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© Copyright, Maryland State Archives, August 16, 2006