Jim Crow in Maryland

Maryland State Archives
350 Rowe Boulevard
Annapolis, MD 21401

Phone: (410) 260-6400
Internet: mdsa.net
e-mail: archives@mdsa.net

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 7: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930)

STANDARD 3: How the United States changed from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression.

Standard 3A: The student understands social tensions and their consequences in the postwar era. 

7-12: Examine rising racial tensions, the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, and the emergence of Garveyism. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships] 

Era 9: Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s)

Standard 4 The struggle for racial and gender equality and the extension of civil liberties 

Standard 4A: The student understands the “Second Reconstruction” and its advancement of civil rights

7-12: Explain the origins of the postwar civil rights movement and the role of the NAACP in the legal assault on segregation. [Analyze multiple causation] 
5-12: Explain the resistance to civil rights in the South between 1954 and 1965. [Identify issues and problems in the past] 

Primary Resources

Examples of Maryland laws:

  1. Chapter 264, Laws of 1884: AN ACT to amend article thirty of the Code of Pubic General Laws, title " Crimes and Punishments," sub-title " Marrying Unlawfully," by adding thereto an additional section forbidding marriages between white persons and persons of negro descent to the third generation, to be known and distinguished as section one hundred and thirty-three

  2. Chapter 109, Laws of 1904: AN ACT to require all railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, to provide separate cars or coaches for white and colored passengers, without any difference or discrimination in quality or of convenience or accommodation in such cars or coaches.

  3. Chapter 110, Laws of 1904: An ACT to provide for the separate accommodation of white and colored passengers in the sitting, sleeping and eating apartments of all steamboats plying in the waters within the jurisdiction of the State of Maryland, without any difference or discrimination in the quality of and convenience of accommodation.

  4. Chapter 250, Acts of 1910: AN ACT to provide for the issue of six hundred thousand dollars ($600,000) of the State of Maryland bonds for the purpose of erection and construction of additional buildings at the Springfield State Hospital at Sykesville; at the Maryland Hospital for the Insane at Catonsville; and at the Maryland Asylum and Training School for Feeble-Minded at Owings Mills, and for the purchase of land and the erection and construction of buildings for the negro insane, and to provide for a Sinking Fund for the payment of the said bonds, to wit: For the Springfield State Hospital at Sykesville, $270,000; for the Maryland Hospital for the Insane at Catonsville, $80,000; for the Maryland Asylum and Training School for Feeble-minded at Owings Mills, $150,000; for the Hospital for the Negro Insane, $100,000; and to provide for the appointment of a Board of Managers for the said Negro Hospital

Examples of Maryland court cases:

  1. Margaret Williams, et al. v. David W. Zimmerman, et al. See Education in Maryland: Separate And Unequal

  2. Murray v. Maryland, 169 Md. 478. See From Segregation to Integration: The Donald Murray Case, 1935-1937

  3. Henderson v. United States Interstate Commerce Commission and Southern Railway Co., 339 U.S. 816 (1950)

Other Materials:

  1. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper article, "Mixed Schools in Baltimore"
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: February 5, 1887
    SOURCE: Cleveland Gazette in The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920

  2. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper article, "Segregation Fight On At Baltimore"
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: December 8, 1917
    SOURCE: Cleveland Advocate, in The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920

  3. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper article, "Baltimore Judge O.K.'s Jim-Crowism"
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: May 29, 1920
    SOURCE: Cleveland Advocate, in The African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920

  4. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Eastport Elementary School, Annapolis, grades 4, 5, 6, and 7 of segregated black school
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1931-1932
    SOURCE: The Annapolis I Remember Collection, MSA SC 2140-1-534
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  5. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, unidentified woman standing in front of sign featuring the words: GENTILES ONLY. Location is possibly Beverly Beach in Mayo, Maryland. This image is a rare photograph depicting segregation based upon religion.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: c. 1938
    SOURCE: Rudolph and Alice Stevens Torovsky Collection, MSA SC 3571-1-256
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  6. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, [Bayard Rustin, Mrs. Bowen Jackson, and Mrs. Earl Williams picket Ford's Theatre in Baltimore, Maryland]
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1948
    NOTES: How To Order Copies of This Item
    SOURCE: Forms part of: Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records (Library of Congress).
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress

  7. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, black school children at segregated Eastport school, grades 1 and 2
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1950 c.
    SOURCE: The Annapolis I Remember Collection, MSA SC 2140-1-482
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  8. DESCRIPTION:  Teen-agers storm Baltimore's City Hall in protest against school integration
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1955
    NOTES: How To Order Copies of This Item
    SOURCE: Forms part of: Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records (Library of Congress).
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress

See also:

Additional Media Resources

The History of Jim Crow

The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow. From PBS

Additional Instructional Resources 

Resources on Incorporating Primary Sources and Historic Sites in Classroom Instruction

The Learning Page: Lessons by Themes, Topics, Disciplines or Eras

The Brown v. Board of Education Cases: An Education Unit on the Cases Comprising the Landmark 1954 School Desegregation Decision

Women and Jim Crow: A Geographic Perspective

Jim Crow Lesson Plans

The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow. See particularly The Laws and Politics of Jim Crow, Gr. 9-12

Secondary Resources

"Recent Cases," Harvard Law Review 53 (1940), 669-71.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

An Archives of Maryland Online Publication
© Copyright, Maryland State Archives, July 01, 2005