Civilians, Soldiers, and Spies

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877) 

STANDARD 2: The course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people. 

Standard 2B: The student understands the social experience of the war on the battlefield and homefront. 

5-12: Compare women's homefront and battlefront roles in the Union and the Confederacy. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas] 
7-12: Compare the motives for fighting and the daily life experiences of Confederate with those of white and African American Union soldiers. [Evidence historical perspectives] 

Primary Resources

CIVILIANS

  1. TITLE: Hospital Sketches: An Army Nurse's True Account of her Experience During the Civil War  
    AUTHOR: Louisa May Alcott
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Boston: James Redpath, 1863. 
    SOURCE: Celebration of Women Writers

  2. TITLE: Woman's work in the civil war: a record of heroism, patriotism and patience.
    AUTHOR: L.P. Brockett and Mrs. Mary C. Vaughan
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Philadelphia, Zeigler, McCurdy & co.; Boston [etc.] R. H. Curran, 1867
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: The Nineteenth Century in Print: Books
    REPOSITORY: University of Michigan

  3. TITLE: Belle Boyd in Camp and Prison
    AUTHOR: Belle Boyd
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: London: Saunders, Otley, and Co., 1865
    REPRODUCTIONS: Ordering information
    SOURCE: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    REPOSITORY:  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

  4. TITLE: Nurse and spy in the Union army : comprising the adventures and experiences of a woman in hospitals, camps and battle-fields / by S. Emma E. Edmonds
    AUTHOR: Sarah Emma Evelyn Edmonds
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Hartford : W. S. Williams & co.: Philadephia, Jones bros. & co. 1865
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: The Nineteenth Century in Print: Books
    REPOSITORY: University of Michigan

  5. TITLE: Diary of Belle Edmondson, January - November, 1864
    AUTHOR: Belle Edmondson 
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1864
    REPRODUCTIONS: Ordering information
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: Transcript of the manuscript, UNC-CH, Southern Historical Collection. Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    REPOSITORY: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

See also:  

SOLDIERS

  1. DESCRIPTION: The Sixth Massachusetts Regiment formed part of the guard stationed at Relay House in 1861. The troops attempted to stop Baltimore's generous supply of recruits and materials to the Confederate army at Harpers Ferry, and they stood ready to squelch any attempt by the Confederates to move toward Relay. 
    PHOTOGRAPHER:
    Unknown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1862
    SOURCE: Robert G. Merrick Archives of Maryland Historical Photographs, MSA SC 1477-6679
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  2. Description: Elkton, the seat of Cecil County, was the hometown of Company I of the Fifth Maryland Volunteers, pictured in this tintype taken in 1862.
    Photographer:
    Unknown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1862
    SOURCE: Robert G. Merrick Archives of Maryland Historical Photographs, MSA SC 1477-5811
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  3. Description: Photograph, The cook house of Company A of the Eighth Massachusetts Infantry posed at Elkridge Heights 
    Photographer:
    Unknown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: June 13, 1861
    SOURCE: Robert G. Merrick Archives of Maryland Historical Photographs, MSA SC 1477-6681
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  4. Description: Photograph, Relay House on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad with Civil War troops
    Location: Relay, Baltimore County
    Photographer:
    Unknown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1862
    SOURCE: Robert G. Merrick Archives of Maryland Historical Photographs, MSA SC 1477-1-6679
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  5. Description: Photographs, Maryland Civil War veterans
    Location: Salisbury, Wicomico County
    Photographer:
    Unknown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1905 c.
    SOURCE:
    Robert G. Merrick Archives of Maryland Historical Photographs, MSA SC 1477-1-6474
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

See also:  

SPIES

  1. TITLEMy Imprisonment and the First Year of Abolition Rule at Washington.
    AUTHOR: Rose O'Neal Greenhow
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: London: Richard Bentley, 1863
    REPRODUCTIONS: Ordering information
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCESouthern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    REPOSITORY: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

  2. TITLE: Nurse and spy in the Union army : comprising the adventures and experiences of a woman in hospitals, camps and battle-fields / by S. Emma E. Edmonds
    AUTHOR: Sarah Emma Evelyn Edmonds
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Hartford : W. S. Williams & co.: Philadephia, Jones bros. & co. 1865
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: The Nineteenth Century in Print: Books
    REPOSITORY: University of Michigan

  3. TITLEThe Southern Husband Outwitted by His Union Wife
    AUTHOR: Kate Plake
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Philadelphia: Printed for the Authoress by Moore & Brother, c1868
    REPRODUCTIONS: Ordering information
    SOURCESouthern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    REPOSITORY: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Additional Media Resources

Brockett, L. P. Woman's work in the civil war: a record of heroism, patriotism and patience. By L. P. Brockett and Mrs. Mary C. Vaughan. With an introduction, by Henry W. Bellows. Philadelphia, Zeigler, McCurdy & co.; Boston [etc.] R. H. Curran, 1867. From: The Nineteenth Century in Print: Books

Clay-Clopton, Virginia. A Belle of the Fifties: Memoirs of Mrs. Clay, of Alabama, Covering Social and Political Life in Washington and the South, 1853-66. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1905, c1904. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Fearn, Frances Hewitt Fearn. Diary of a Refugee. New York: Moffat, Yard and Company, 1910. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Harrison, Mrs. Burton. Recollections Grave and Gay. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Merrick, Caroline Elizabeth Thomas Merrick, Old Times in Dixie Land: a Southern Matron's Memories. New York: Grafton Press, 1901. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Mitchel, Cora. Reminiscences of the Civil War. Providence: Snow & Farnham Co., [1916?]. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Moore, Frank. Women of the war; their heroism and self-sacrifice. By Frank Moore. Hartford, Conn.,
S. S. Scranton & co.; Chicago, R. C. Treat [etc., etc.] 1866. From: The Nineteenth Century in Print: Books

Ripley, Eliza Moore Chinn McHatten. From Flag to Flag: A Woman's Adventures and Experiences
in the South During the War, in Mexico, and in Cuba
. New York: D. Appleton, c1888, 1889. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Saxon, Elizabeth Lyle. A Southern Woman's War Time Reminiscences. Memphis, Tenn: Press of the Pilcher Printing Co., 1905. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Wright, Louise Wigfall Wright. A Southern Girl in '61: The War-Time Memories of a Confederate Senator's Daughter. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1905. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Velazquez, Loreta Janeta. The Woman in Battle: A Narrative of the Exploits, Adventures,
and Travels of Madame Loreta Janeta Velazquez, Otherwise Known as Lieutenant Harry T. Buford, Confederate States Army
.
Richmond, Va.: Dustin, Gilman & Co., 1876. From: Southern Voices: Texts from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Mr. Lincoln's Virtual Library From the Library of Congress American Memory Project

"We'll Sing to Abe Our Song": Sheet Music about Lincoln, Emancipation, and the Civil War, from the Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana From the Library of Congress American Memory Project

Remember the Ladies

Resources on Women in the Civil War

The Valley of the Shadow

National Museum of Civil War Medicine

See alsoUnited States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Women for additional materials from the American Memory Project

Additional Instructional Resources

Ladies, Contraband and Spies: Women in the Civil War. From the Library of Congress

Clara Barton's House: Home of the American Red Cross
Follow Barton's remarkable career as a leader of charitable causes, from caring for the wounded on Civil War battlefields to founding the American Red Cross. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)

The Battle of Prairie Grove: Civilian Recollections of the Civil War
Understand the violence of the Civil War through the eyes of young women whose homes were in the midst of an important battle and continuing conflict.

The Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiers in the Civil War. Teaching activities, historical documents, and photographs explore the issues of emancipation and military service.

Secondary Resources

Blanton, DeAnne. "Women Soldiers of the Civil War" Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives (Spring 1993, vol. 25, no. 1).

Coryell, Janet L. Neither Heroine nor Fool: Anna Ella Carroll of Maryland. Kent, Ohio : Kent State University Press, c1990.

Culpepper, Marilyn Mayer. Trials and Triumphs: Women of the American Civil War. East Lansing : Michigan State University Press, 1991. 

Forbes, Ella. African American Women During the Civil War. New York: Garland, 1998. 

Jaquette, Henrietta Stratton, ed. Letters of a Civil War Nurse. Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, 1998. 

Leonard, Elizabeth D. All the Daring of the Soldier: Women of the Civil War Armies. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999.

Maher, Mary Denis. To Bind Up the Wounds: Catholic Sister Nurses in the U.S. Civil War. New York : Greenwood Press, 1989

McKaig, Priscilla Ellen Beall. The McKaig Journal: A Confederate Family of Cumberland. Cumberland, Md. (218 Washington St., Cumberland 21502) : Allegany County Historical Society, 1984. Note: "The entries alternate between those of Mr. McKaig and those of Mrs. McKaig [from 1851] until 1862, when the journal was taken over entirely by the latter." 

Mills, Eric. Chesapeake Bay in the Civil War. Centreville, Md.: Tidewater Publishers, c. 1996. 

Schwartz, Gerald, ed. A Woman Doctor's Civil War: Esther Hill Hawk's Diary. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1986. 

Sullivan, Walter, ed. The War the Women Lived: Female Voices from the Confederate South. Nashville : J.S. Sanders, c1995. 

Venet, Wendy Hamand. Neither Ballots nor Bullets: Women Abolitionists and the Civil War. Charlottesville : University Press of Virginia, 1991. 

Woolsey, Jane Stuart. Hospital Days: Reminiscences of a Civil War Nurse. Edinborough Press, 1999.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

National Museum of Civil War Medicine
48 East Patrick Street
Frederick, MD 21701
Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine
End of East Fort Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21230-5393
Baltimore Civil War Museum
President Street Station
601 President Street
Baltimore, MD 21202

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.

 

Teaching American History | Document Packets Index

 
 
  An Archives of Maryland Online Publication • © Copyright 2001-2005 Maryland State Archives
Maryland State Archives • 350 Rowe Boulevard • Annapolis, MD 21401 • 410-260-6400 • msa.helpdesk@maryland.gov