Eye of the Beholder: 
European Interpretations of Native American Culture

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades K-4:

Topic 2: The History of Studentsí Own State or Region 

STANDARD 3: The people, events, problems, and ideas that created the history of their state. 

Standard 3A: The student understands the history of indigenous peoples who first lived in his or her state or region.

K-4: Draw upon data in paintings and artifacts to hypothesize about the culture of the early Hawaiians or Native Americans who are known to have lived in the state or region, e.g., the Anasazi of the Southwest, the Makah of the Northwest coast, the Eskimos/Inupiat of Alaska, the Creeks of the Southeast, the Mississippians (Cahokia), or the Mound Builders. [Formulate historical questions] 
K-4: Draw upon legends and myths of the Native Americans or Hawaiians who lived in studentsí state or region in order to describe personal accounts of their history. [Read historical narratives imaginatively] 
3-4: Compare and contrast how Native American or Hawaiian life today differs from the life of these same groups over 100 years ago. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas] 

Topic 4: The History of Peoples of Many Cultures around the World

STANDARD 7: Selected attributes and historical developments of various societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe.

Standard 7A: The student understands the cultures and historical developments of selected societies in such places as Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe.

3-4: Investigate the ways historians learn about the past if there are no written records. [Compare records from the past] 
3-4: Describe the effects geography has had on societies, including their development of urban centers, food, clothing, industry, agriculture, shelter, trade, and other aspects of culture. [Draw upon historical maps] 
K-4: Compare and contrast various aspects of family life, structures, and roles in different cultures and in many eras with studentsí own family lives. [Compare and contrast] 

Primary Resources

  1. TITLE: The generall historie of Virginia, New England & the Summer Isles, together with The true travels, adventures and observations, and A sea grammar [Volume 1]
    AUTHOR: John Smith (1580-1631)
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: The Capital and the Bay: Narratives of Washington and the Chesapeake Bay Region, ca. 1600-1925

  2. TITLE: The generall historie of Virginia, New England & the Summer Isles, together with The true travels, adventures and observations, and A sea grammar [Volume 2]
    AUTHOR: John Smith (1580-1631)
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: The Capital and the Bay: Narratives of Washington and the Chesapeake Bay Region, ca. 1600-1925

  3. TITLE: Virginia  
    CARTOGRAPHER: John Smith
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1608 [1612], Oxford
    NOTES: Smith conducted the first detailed explorations of the entire Chesapeake Bay and produced the first map of the full extent of the bay based upon personal experience. When compared with satellite photographs of the Bay, one finds that Smith's depiction of the bay is surprisingly accurate considering that he had to take his bearing from an open barge. Maltese crosses indicate where personal observation ends and conjecture begins. Smith's map is still used by archeologists to locate the remains of Indian villages. The map served as the prototype of the Bay until the Augustine Herrman map of 1673. In addition, Smith decorated the map with several of DeBry's engravings of John White's drawings. See Huntingfield Collection map report for additional information about this map.
    Huntingfield Corporation Map Collection, MSA SC 1399-1-101
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  4. TITLE: A Land-Skip of the Province of Maryland 
    CARTOGRAPHER: George Alsop
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1666 [1869]
    In 1666, George Alsop published his fanciful map of the Chesapeake in A Character of the Province of Maryland, Alsop's account of his life as an indentured servant. See Huntingfield Collection map report for additional information about this map.
    George Alsop, A land-Skip of the Province of Mary land, 1666 [1869], in Gowan's Bibliotheca Americana, MSA SC 1213-1-435.
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  5. TITLE: Virginia and Maryland as it is Planted and Inhabited this Present Year 1670, Surveyed and Exactly Drawne by the Only Labour & Endeavour of Augustim Herrman Bohemiensis
    CARTOGRAPHER: Augustine Herrman
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1673, London 
    NOTES: See Huntingfield Collection map report for additional information. Image from MSA SC 5339-1-172.
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress.

  6. TITLE: Virginia, Marylandia et Caroline 
    CARTOGRAPHER: J. B. Homann
    NOTES: See also detail of cartouche
    Huntingfield Corporation Map Collection, MSA SC 1399-1-193
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

  7. TITLE: Watercolor drawings of John White and the corresponding engravings of Theodor De Bry
    ARTIST: John White 
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1585-1586
    NOTES: See also Thomas Hariot, A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia. Theodore de Bry, 1590.
    SOURCE: Virtual Jamestown

Additional Instructional Resources

Close Encounters of the First Kind, 1585-1767
Includes maps and documents relating to the first encounters of the English settlers and explorers with Native Americans. The objective is to introduce students to how explorers, settlers, and Native Americans reacted to, and learned from one another

Daily Life in the New World, 1634-1715 
To examine the nature of civil liberty and the quality of life in 17th and early 18th century Maryland using wills, inventories, & a plat from the period 1660s-1715. One indicator that can be used for comparative purposes in answering the question what life was like in the New World is the information to be found in probate records. Probate records are public documents that provide details of what property people owned at death. Carefully read the enclosed wills. Compare and contrast the inventories. Try to read the actual inventories using the typescripts as a guide. Bear in mind that in Maryland, inventories only include personal effects, NOT land, while wills will mention land. When disputes arose over ownership of land, maps of the property in question (called "plats") were often included in the court case and can be found among the court records.

This Land is Whose Land? From UMBC Center for History Education, Teaching American History Lesson Plans.

Native American Gender Roles in Maryland. From UMBC Center for History Education, Teaching American History Lesson Plans.

Pontiac's War. From UMBC Center for History Education, Teaching American History Lesson Plans.

Maryland Indians: A Day in the Life of..... From Maryland With Pride (Pride of Baltimore)

We Were Here First (Grades 6-8 , 9-12 ) Exploring the Indigenous Peoples of the United States. From New York Times on the Web Learning Network.

Secondary Resources

Barbour, Philip L. Pocahontas and her World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1970.  

Boyce-Ballweber, Hettie First People of Maryland Maryland Historical Press, Lanham, MD, 1987. 

Brugger, Robert. "From Province to Colony (1634-1689)." In Maryland: A Middle Temperament. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press in association with the Maryland Historical Society, 1988.

Callcott, George H. "The Quality of Life in Maryland Over Five Centuries" Maryland Historical Magazine 2001 vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 272-302.

Davidson, Thomas E. "Historically Attested Indian Villages of the Lower Delmarva." Maryland Archaeology 18(1):108, 1982.  

Davidson, T. E. and Hughes, Richard. "Aerial Photography and the Search for Chicone Indian Town." Archaeology 39(4):58-76, 1986. 

Feest, Christian F. "Seventeenth Century Virginia Algonquian Population Estimates." Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia. 28(2) (1973):66-79.   

________. "The Virginia Indian in Pictures, 1612-1624." The Smithsonian Journal of History 2(1), 1967.

Hulton, Paul and David Beers Quinn. The American Drawings of John White, 1577-1590. 2 vols. Trustees of the British Museum, and University of North Carolina Press, 1964. 

Marye, William B. "The Wicomiss Indians of Maryland." American Antiquity 4 (1938): 146-52. 

________. "Indian Paths of the Delmarva Peninsula." Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Delaware 2(15): 1-25, 1937. 

________. "Former Indian Sites in Maryland as Located by Early Colonial Records." American Antiquity 2 (1936):40-46.

Merrill, James H. "Cultural Continuity Among the Piscataway Indians of Colonial Maryland." The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. XXXVI, no. 4 (October 1979): 548-570.

Porter III, Frank W. "The Nanticoke Indians in a Hostile World." In Strategies for Survival: American Indians in the Eastern United States, pp. 139-172. Edited by Frank W. Porter III. Greenwood Press, 1986.  

________. Maryland Indians: Yesterday and Today. Maryland Hist., 1983.

Rountree, Helen C. and Thomas E. Davidson. Eastern Shore Indians of Virginia and Maryland University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 1997. 

Roundtree, Helen C. "Powhatan Indian Women: the People Captain John Smith Barely Saw." Ethnohistory (Winter 1998): 1-29. 

Read, David. "Colonialism and Coherence: The case of Captain John Smith's General Historie of Virginia." Modern Philology (May 1994): 428-448. 

Ziff, Larzer. "Conquest and Recovery in Early Writings from America." American Literature (September 1996): 509-525. 

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Baltimore American Indian Center
113 South Broadway
Baltimore, MD  21231
Phone: (410) 675-3535
Maryland Indian Heritage Society, Inc.
16816 Country Lane
Waldorf, MD  20601
Phone: (301) 372-1932
Open by appointment only.

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Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.


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